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Big Muddy Prison

This list contains foreign citizens who committed or attempted to commit terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests. All sentences are without parole.The majority of the facility is above ground, with the exception of a subterranean corridor that links cellblocks to the lobby. Each cell contains a desk, stool, and bed, constructed almost entirely of poured concrete, as well as a toilet that shuts off if blocked, a shower that runs on a timer to prevent flooding, and a sink lacking a potentially dangerous tap. Rooms may also be fitted with polished steel mirrors bolted to the wall, an electric light that can be shut off only remotely, a radio, and a television that shows recreational, educational, and religious programming.

Which prison is the most beautiful in the world?
The Most Beautiful Prisons in the WorldAlcatraz Prison. Alcatraz Island was a jail until 1963 and remains the most famous prison in the world, with San Francisco Bay serving as home. … Lakes Region Facility. … Sark Prison. … Kresty Prison. … Halden Prison. … Justice Center Leoben. … Eastern State Penitentiary. … Chillon Castle.
Federal Bureau of Prisons director Norman Carlson proposed a new facility to isolate the most dangerous, uncontrollable inmates for security and safety. Under his leadership, USP Marion was operated in permanent lockdown for 23 years, serving as a model for ADX as a control unit prison. Carlson believed that the prison would hold criminals who were desperate enough to murder corrections officers or other inmates in the hopes of being sentenced to death. He argued that as draconian as these measures were, they were the only way to deal with inmates who have “absolutely no concern for human life”.The American crime drama series Better Call Saul features a fictional federal prison based on ADX Florence named “ADX Montrose”, located in Montrose, Colorado. Scenes for ADX Montrose were shot at the Penitentiary of New Mexico.

In the 2023 fiction thriller novel Only the Dead by author and retired US Navy SEAL Jack Carr, the protagonist, James Reece, portrayed by actor Chris Pratt in Amazon Prime Video’s The Terminal List, is housed in Range 13 after being suspected of an assassination attempt on a fictitious characterization of the President of the United States.
This list contains U.S. citizens, regardless of origin, who committed or attempted to commit terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests.The facility is best known for housing inmates who have been deemed too dangerous, too high-profile, or too great a security risk for even maximum-security prisons. For example, Joseph Romano was sentenced to life in federal prison for plotting to murder the judge and federal prosecutor who helped sentence him to 15 years in prison for masterminding a coin fraud operation. While in prison, he plotted to murder an undercover officer who had taken part in the investigation. When this came to light, Romano was transferred to Florence.The prison has received far less criticism than comparable facilities at the state level (such as California’s Pelican Bay State Prison) which tend to suffer from over-population, low staff-to-inmate ratios, and security issues. Jamie Fellner of Human Rights Watch said after a tour of the facility in 1998, “The Bureau of Prisons has taken a harsh punitive model and implemented it as well as anybody I know.”

One cell block at Florence was once known as “Bombers Row” because five notable terrorists, four of whom are/were domestic terrorists, were held there: Timothy McVeigh, Terry Nichols, Ramzi Yousef, Eric Rudolph, and Ted Kaczynski.
The supermax unit at Florence houses 325 male inmates as of June 23, 2023, each assigned to one of six security levels. It is designed for 474 inmates but has never been at full capacity.

Which is the biggest prison in the world?
The largest prison in the world is the Silivri Penitentiaries Campus in the northwestern suburbs of Istanbul, Turkey, according to Guinness World Records. An investigation by the Turkish parliament in November 2019 found the prison complex’s population was 22,781, just over half that of El Salvador’s proposed facility.
Critics claim that the use of extended confinement in solitary cells adversely affects prisoners’ mental health; numerous studies support this conclusion. As of March 2015, settlement negotiations were underway with the help of a federal magistrate. Some changes have already been made by the Bureau of Prisons.After at least one year, depending on their conduct, inmates are gradually allowed out for longer periods. The long-term goal is to keep them at Florence for no more than three years and then to transfer them to a less restrictive prison to serve the remainder of their sentences. According to a 1998 report in the San Francisco Chronicle, Florence’s main purpose is to “try and extract reasonably peaceful behavior from extremely violent career prisoners”.

ADX Florence was commissioned when the Federal Bureau of Prisons needed a unit designed specifically for the secure housing of those prisoners most capable of extreme violence toward staff or other inmates, as well as inmates deemed too high-profile or too great of a security risk for even a maximum security prison. The inmates are confined for the most part of the day in single cells with facilities made of poured, reinforced concrete to deter self-harm, and are under 24-hour supervision, carried out intensively with high staff–inmate ratios.
The institution is unofficially known as ADX Florence or “the Alcatraz of the Rockies.” It is part of the Federal Correctional Complex, Florence, run by the Federal Bureau of Prisons under the United States Department of Justice. The complex includes a minimum-security camp that, as of February 2019, holds more prisoners than the supermax unit. The number of inmates has declined, and as of 2021, two housing units have closed due to low population.

In 1983, Thomas Silverstein and Clayton Fountain, members of the Aryan Brotherhood, fatally stabbed correctional officers Merle Clutts and Robert Hoffman at the United States Penitentiary, Marion. The stabbings took place only a few hours apart and were blamed on inadequate prison design.
In 2012, eleven inmates filed a federal class-action suit against the Bureau of Prisons in Cunningham v. Federal Bureau of Prisons. The suit alleged chronic abuse and failure to properly diagnose prisoners who are seriously mentally ill. At the time of the lawsuit, at least six inmates had allegedly died by suicide; a seventh did so after the original lawsuit was filed, and an amended filing added him to the case.The prison as a whole contains a multitude of motion detectors, cameras, and 1,400 remote-controlled steel doors. Officers in the prison’s control center monitor inmates twenty-four hours a day and can activate a “panic button”, which immediately closes every door in the facility, should an escape attempt be suspected. Pressure pads and 12-foot (3.7 m) razor-wire fences surround the perimeter, which is patrolled by heavily armed officers.

The majority of current inmates, however, have been placed there because each has an extensive history in other prisons of committing violent crimes, including murder, against corrections officers and fellow inmates. These inmates are kept in administrative segregation. They are confined in a single-person cell for 23 hours a day. During their hour outside the cell, which can occur at any time of day or night, they are kept under restraint (handcuffed, shackled, or both). The hour outside of the cell is for exercise and a phone call if they have earned the privilege. Their diet is restricted to ensure that the food cannot be used to harm themselves or to create unhygienic conditions in their cell. Some cells have showers which further reduces the amount of handling of inmates that correctional officers have to perform.

Florence houses male inmates in the federal prison system deemed the most dangerous and in need of the tightest control, including prisoners whose escape would pose a serious threat to national security.
Florence opened on January 10, 1995. The county already had nine prisons, but the lure of 750 to 900 permanent jobs (plus temporary jobs during the prison’s construction) led residents to raise $160,000 to purchase 600 acres (240 ha) for the new prison. Hundreds of people attended the groundbreaking for the facility, which was designed by two leading architecture firms in Colorado Springs and cost $60 million to build.In 2020, a British magistrate refused to extradite Julian Assange to the United States on espionage charges in part because he would possibly be subjected to solitary confinement and special administrative measures at ADX. On July 7, 2021, the High Court of Justice for England and Wales agreed to allow the United States to appeal this decision with the understanding that Assange “will not be subject to SAMs or imprisoned at ADX” if he is extradited.

What famous prison is in New York?
Rikers Island is a 413-acre (167.14-hectare) island in the East River in the Bronx that contains New York City’s largest jail.
Women classified as a “special management concern” due to violence or escape attempts are confined at Federal Medical Center, Carswell in Fort Worth, Texas.The facility houses inmates at six differing security levels: General Population Units (“Delta”, “Echo”, “Fox”, and “Golf” Units), the Special Housing Unit (SHU), the Special Security Unit (“H” Unit), the Control Unit, Intermediate/Transitional Units (“Kilo” and “Joker” Units), and Range 13. Many of the security levels at ADX have special purposes or missions for the inmates who occupy them. The Control Unit houses inmates who have committed serious conduct violations or acts of violence at other institutions. It also houses high-level members of organizations deemed as threats, such as prison gangs. “H” Unit houses inmates who are members of terror groups so designated by the Department of Justice or who have had special administrative measures (SAMs) placed on them. Range 13 is a special four-cell wing within the Special Housing Unit for inmates in need of the tightest control. As of 2022, the only inmates publicly known to have been incarcerated in this unit are Thomas Silverstein and Ramzi Yousef. The two Intermediate Units house “step-down” inmates, who can earn transfer to another institution if they remain incident-free while housed in the unit. This is the only unit in ADX where inmates secure themselves in their own cells, can walk freely in their range, and associate with other inmates. From there, inmates will typically be transferred to the supermax step-down unit in USP Florence High.

What's the toughest prison in Illinois?
Stateville Correctional Center (SCC) is a maximum security state prison for men in Crest Hill, Illinois, United States, near Chicago. It is a part of the Illinois Department of Corrections.
The United States Penitentiary, Administrative Maximum Facility (USP Florence ADMAX), commonly known as ADX Florence or Supermax, is an American federal prison in Fremont County near Florence, Colorado. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. ADX Florence, constructed in 1994 and opened one year later is classed as a supermax or “control unit” prison, thus providing a higher, more controlled level of custody than a maximum security prison (or “high security,” as it is called in the federal prison system). ADX Florence forms part of the Federal Correctional Complex, Florence (FCC Florence), which is situated on 49 acres (20 hectares) of land and houses different facilities with varying degrees of security, including the United States Penitentiary, Florence High.Despite the extreme security measures to deter disruptive, violent, and dangerous behavior among inmates, there have been murders at ADX. Silvestre Rivera and Richard Santiago were both charged with the first degree murder of Manuel Torres, a high-level member of the Mexican Mafia. Left alone with no guard supervision in the prison yard on the morning of April 21, 2005, Rivera and Santiago were videotaped brutally beating and stomping Torres to death. Rivera pled not guilty due to self-defense. Prosecutors intended to seek the death penalty against Rivera and Santiago, but they were both given life sentences for the murders. Today, Santiago remains incarcerated at ADX, while Rivera is currently serving his life sentence in USP Hazelton. The Bureau of Prisons allowed the media to take a guided tour of Florence on September 14, 2007. Attending reporters remarked on “an astonishing and eerie quiet” within the prison, as well as a sense of safety due to the rigorous security measures. 60 Minutes producer Henry Schuster said, “A few minutes inside that cell and two hours inside Supermax were enough to remind me why I left high school a year early. The walls close in very fast.” ADX Florence is a 37-acre (15 ha) complex located at 5880 Highway 67, in an unincorporated area, with a Florence, Colorado, postal address. It is located about 100 miles (160 km) south of Denver and 40 miles (64 km) south of Colorado Springs. It is part of the Federal Correctional Complex, Florence (FCC Florence) which consists of three correctional facilities, each with a different security rating.Prisoners held in Unit H are subject to special administrative measures that prevent them from communicating with journalists or privately with their own lawyers or family members.

The 4-inch-by-4-foot (10 cm × 1.2 m) windows are designed to prevent inmates from knowing their specific location within the complex. They can see only the sky and roof through them, so it is virtually impossible to plan an escape. Inmates exercise in a concrete pit resembling an empty swimming pool, also designed to prevent them from knowing their location in the facility. The pit is large enough only for a prisoner to walk ten steps in a straight line or thirty-one steps in a circle. Correctional officers generally deliver food to the cells. Inmates transferred to Florence from other prisons may be allowed to eat in a shared dining room.
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For all electronic transfer of funds, the inmate IDOC number and incarcerated last name must be used. Funds sent via GTL, JPAY and Western Union are anticipated to be applied to the inmate’s account within 24-48 business hours.Big Muddy River Correctional Center is a medium-security prison for male inmates located in Ina, Illinois. This facility opened in 1993 and has a maximum capacity of 2,117 inmates.

What is the most strict prison?
ADMAX Florence United States Penitentiary, also known as ADX Florence, Florence ADMAX, Supermax, or the Alcatraz of the Rockies, is an administrative maximum-security penitentiary located in Fremont County near Florence, Colorado.
All potential visitors must register with GTL. Registration process will include completing a Prospective Visitor Interview Form; all visitors must fully complete this form with GTL even if they have completed this form at a facility. Any omissions of required information on the form may result in your registration not being accepted causing unnecessary delays.

The Big Muddy River Correctional Center is located one mile south of Ina in Jefferson County. The facility consists of a total of 20 buildings, which comprise more than 39,000 square feet. The living units consist of four X-type housing units, one receiving and orientation unit, one segregation unit and a 15-bed health care unit. The facility sits on a 78-acre site, with 38 acres enclosed by fencing. All visitors must arrive by 4:00 p.m. as no visits will be allowed after that time due to the notification time and time delay in the visit processing. Examples of inappropriate dress for visitors are: short shirts or dresses, wrap around skirts, see through clothing, see-through or low-cut blouses, tube tops, halter tops, tank tops, swim suits or swim suit tops, short shorts, clothing with “cutouts” or leggings. Dresses or skirts should extend to the knees. There are no refunds for unused money remaining on the card for any reason other than a defective card, so only put enough on the card for the single visit. Cards are only good at the facility where purchased. If the offender transfers, a new card at the current facility will need to be used. Thank you for visiting us to better understand how inmates are treated while incarcerated at this institution. Please be sure to share this website with others so that we can spread the word and help to maintain rights for current and former inmates.Visiting hours for General Population Offenders are from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. seven days a week. Offenders are permitted seven visits per month, with no more than two on weekends or holidays.

To check if you are on the offender’s visitor list, you should write a letter to your inmate to inquire. IDOC staff cannot tell you whether or not you are on an offender’s visitation list if you call the facility.
The only way that our website will be able to complete its goal of holding correctional institutions accountable for their actions is to collect reviews from our website visitors. These reviews will allow us to approach the media to expose injustices at various institutions. If you have any information about this or any other institutions, we urge you to leave a review on our website.

Visitors are not allowed to bring electronic devices such as cell phones or pagers. Other items not allowed in the visiting room include food, drink, smoking materials, currency, packages, purses, bags, sacks, books, magazines, sunglasses, or personal keys.

You must be on your inmate’s approved visitation list in order to visit. The inmate is responsible for arranging their visits and notifying their visitors of their visiting status.
Deposit slips are available by clicking here. The money orders should be sent with a deposit slip, be made payable to JPay, and sent to the following address:All adult visitors will be required to produce photo identification (ID) and verification of his or her date of birth. Be sure to bring two forms of identification with you; one should be a current state issued photo ID.

Which is the biggest jail in Asia?
Tihar As the clock strikes 5 in the morning, the 2,500-odd officials inside Asia’s largest prison complex – Tihar – get ready for their day.
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The Big Muddy River Correctional Center’s most important goal is to ensure that the employees have a safe and secure environment in which to work, while at the same time, ensuring that offenders housed at the facility are afforded the opportunity to live in a safe and humane environment that is conducive to programming opportunities. The various programming opportunities are designed to assist inmates in bettering themselves so that they may become prepared for life in the community upon release.
Visitors may place personal items in small lockers available in the Visiting Center for 25 cents. The locker key may be carried into the facility after the visitor secures personal responsibility for these items. The facility will not assume responsibility for these items.On the first visit to a correctional facility, adult visitors (age 18 and older) will be required to complete a Prospective Visitor’s Interview (PVI) form, called a DOC 0148. This PVI form can be completed and brought in on the first visit.

All visitors must be dressed appropriately for a prison environment or the visit will not be permitted. Clothing must be in good taste and not advertise or suggest any items in such a manner to signify a Security Threat Group or other illegal activity. Visitors should not wear clothing that is sexually explicit, offensive, or degrading. All visitors must wear underwear and female visitors must wear a bra. Visitors should not wear clothing which reveals the buttocks or breasts.
All video visits are monitored live and recorded, any violation of visitation rules, inappropriate conduct, or language may be subject to immediate termination of the video visit with or without warning.

Video Visitation is a privilege and is only available to offenders in general population or in the health care unit. Offenders housed in Segregation, in orientation, or temporarily housed at the facility will not be permitted video visitation. If an offender receives discipline between the time a visit is confirmed and the time of the visit, the visit may be cancelled; the visitor will receive an email of the cancellation. If the facility goes on lock down prior to a scheduled video visit, the visitor will receive an email.
All video visits will be scheduled through the GTL website; do not call the facility to schedule a video visit. The visitor should check before scheduling the video visit of dates and times that are available for the offender. The facility cannot tell a potential visitor if a date or time will work with an offender’s daily schedule. The facility will inform the offender of the pending visit and arrange for the offender to be present.Vending machine items may only be purchased using a debit card. Visitors may purchase a debit card at the facility, normally at the gatehouse. The price of the debit card will vary by facility depending upon the vendor providing the service. We’re sorry, but we don’t have any insights for this institution at this time. However, if you’d like to you can join our free support group on Facebook by clicking here. Your use of video visitation and acceptance of the rules is consent to have both audio and video recorded of the video visit. Dress Code policy below applies to video visitation.

“Contraband” means items which are prohibited by criminal law, departmental or facility rules or posted notices. They are items which an offender has no authority to possess; property which is in excess of that which is authorized by the facility.
Visiting hours for Segregation Offenders are from 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. seven days a week. Offenders are only allowed to visit for one hour. All visitors must arrive no later than 12:00 p.m.

All persons, vehicles, and items brought onto State property are subject to search. Failure to submit to a search will result in denial, suspension, or restriction of visiting privileges.Visitors must submit to a body search by officers at the Visitor Center. Visitors who are intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol or drugs will not be permitted entry.

Due to a recent spike in COVID-19 cases in the state of Louisiana, the Angola Museum will now require all guests to wear masks. We apologize for any inconvenience this may create, and we appreciate your cooperation. Please check back for updates. (Last updated: 07/28/21)
From the annual Prison Rodeo to the museum’s biennial symposiums, we bring a whole new meaning to an “active prison.” Learn more and join us for one of our symposiums, speaker series, book signings, featured exhibits, special tours, or other events throughout the year!Louisiana State Penitentiary, once known as “America’s Bloodiest Prison,” is the largest maximum security prison in the nation. The penitentiary’s storied history of instability and reform serve as a reminder of the progress made within corrections and the possibilities of rehabilitation. Bedford Hills Correctional Facility, located in Westchester County, New York, is the largest women’s maximum security prison in New York. The current capacity of Bedford Hills is 972 inmates. Some notable inmates serving their sentences at Fishkill include Izola Curry, who tried to assassinate Martin Luther King, Jr., serial killer Lizzie Halliday, and New York City’s “Mad Bomber” Joseph Metesky.

Fishkill Correctional Facility was founded in 1892 as the Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. It housed dangerous and insane criminals until 1977, when it was renamed Fishkill Correctional Facility. Today it is a minimum security prison with a maximum security wing that houses 200 criminals.Attica is mostly known for the infamous prison riot that took place at the facility in 1971, which resulted in 43 deaths. The facility based in western New York is among the worst prisons in New York State. Some of the tough criminals to ever serve in Attica include serial killers David Berkowitz, Joel Rifkin, and Kendall Francois.

This maximum prison that was opened in 1826 has housed many famous criminals, including serial killer Albert Fish, Julius, and Ethel Rosenberg, and numerous members of the Murder, Inc. crime syndicate.

These worst prisons in New York State have seen spikes in violence, deaths, inmates taking their own lives, or attempting to take their lives, heat waves without adequate cooling, and reduced access to basic services, including medical and mental health care. All these actors make them the worst places you can find yourself in.
With a total of 52 prisons, New York has some of the most famous correctional facilities, with some operating for over 100 years. The correctional facilities in New York have been home to the roughest and most dangerous prisoners.New York State has the largest number of prisons in the United States. This may be because of the large population of the state. With a large population, there is definitely going to be a high crime rate, and to curb crime; there will be a lot of prisons. So which are the worst prisons in New York State?This maximum security prison was founded in 1949. Green Haven currently holds 2,170 inmates. Famous prisoners include mafia boss John Gotti, gangster Joey Gallo, John Lennon assassin Mark David Chapman, and murderer Ronald DeFeo, Jr.Riker’s Island happens to be the most famous jail in the world. It is among the largest and worst prisons in New York State. On any given day, you can find as many as 10,000 prisoners jailed there. Most of New York’s violent criminals have spent their time on Riker’s Island. It is also known for its legendary prison violence.This maximum security facility is not only among the worst prisons in New York State but also happens to be New York’s second state prison. It was opened in 1818, and it is one of the oldest continuously operating prisons in the United States, holding 1,821 prisoners.The worst prisons in New York State are ranked based on the inmates that are being brought to the facility, that is the degree of crime committed. It is also ranked by the corruption and poor hygiene of the prisoners. Lastly, the worst prisons in New York State are ranked by the number of suicides committed by the inmates.

Clinton Correctional Facility is a maximum-security prison for adult males. It is the largest correctional facility in New York. It was founded in 1845 near the Canadian border, and it currently has a capacity of 2,959 prisoners. The facility is surrounded by thirty-foot walls made of concrete and several armed guard towers.It brags of holding William Kemmler, the first man executed by an electric chair, mafia hit men, McKinley assassin Leon Czolgosz, serial molester and murderer Robert F. GarrowPopularly known as Sing Sing, Ossining Correctional Facility has a full capacity of 1,747 prisoners. Before the death penalty was abolished in New York, 614 men and women were executed by electric chair at this facility in 1972.

What is America's famous prison?
Alcatraz was probably the most famous federal prison in US history. The US government operates federal prisons to hold people convicted of violating federal laws. Alcatraz housed some of America’s most notorious offenders from 1934 to 1963.
But unfortunately, that is not always the case because, for such a place with some of the most hardcore criminals in the world, even those who find themselves there for minor offenses have to harden to survive. No one fancies being thrown into the worst prisons in the world because anything can happen to anyone published a list of the 10 worst prisons in the world. Prisons are meant to be correction facilities where inmates go as criminals and come out as reformed individuals.

Aside from the worst prisons in New York State mentioned above, New York has a couple of maximum security prisons for correcting tough criminals. Below is a list of the maximum security prisons for different countries in New York.
The Big Muddy River Correctional Center is a medium-security state prison for men located in Ina, Jefferson County, Illinois, owned and operated by the Illinois Department of Corrections.In July 1977, capital punishment was reinstated in Illinois. On September 8, 1983, the state adopted lethal injection as the default method of execution in Illinois, but the electric chair remained operational to replace lethal injection if needed. Eleven executions were carried out by lethal injection at the Stateville Correctional Center between September 1990 and January 1998. In March 1998, the site of executions was moved 305 miles (491 km) southwest to the Tamms Correctional Center in Tamms, Illinois.

Stateville Correctional Center (SCC) is a maximum security state prison for men in Crest Hill, Illinois, United States, near Chicago. It is a part of the Illinois Department of Corrections.
Stateville is located 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Joliet, Illinois (16830 IL Route 53 Crest Hill, IL 60403; (815) 727-3607), on a site of over 2,200 acres (8.9 km), of which 64 acres (26 ha) are surrounded by a 33-foot (10 m) concrete perimeter with 10 wall towers. Stateville is often confused with the former Joliet Correctional Center, which closed in 2002. Located in the nearby city of Joliet, the former Joliet Prison is much older and smaller. It is located about 2.5 miles (4.0 km) southeast of Stateville on the corner of Woodruff Rd. and Collins St., across the Illinois and Michigan Canal.

In 2009 a 40-year-old man from Chicago, Richard Conner, murdered a 37-year-old Will County man named Jameson Leezer, who had originated from Lisle and Bolingbrook. Both were inmates placed in the same solitary confinement cell together. The killing made the state of Illinois change its rules in housing two prisoners together during solitary confinement; the prison authorities now must take into account both inmates’ histories of violence.

What is the USA toughest prison?
The United States Penitentiary, Administrative Maximum Facility (USP Florence ADMAX), commonly known as ADX Florence or Supermax, is an American federal prison in Fremont County near Florence, Colorado. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice.
Stateville Correctional Center was one of three sites in which executions were carried out by electrocution in Illinois. The electric chair was first used at Stateville in 1949. Prior to that the electric chair was housed at the Joliet Correctional Center. The state’s other electrocutions were carried out at the Menard Correctional Center in Chester and at the Cook County Jail in Chicago.

Opened in 1925, Stateville was built to accommodate 1,506 inmates. Parts of the prison were designed according to the panopticon concept proposed by the British philosopher and prison reformer, Jeremy Bentham. Stateville’s “F-House” cellhouse, commonly known as a “roundhouse”, has a panopticon layout which features an armed tower in the center of an open area surrounded by several tiers of cells. F-House was the only remaining “roundhouse” still in use in the United States in the 1990s. It was closed in late 2016 but the structure will remain standing due to its historical significance. A duplicate of the prison, the Presidio Modelo, opened in Cuba in 1936, but has since been abandoned.Stateville’s 1,300 employees make it a Level 1 facility; the highest of eight security level designations. There is also a minimum security unit commonly referred to as the Stateville Farm, which is a Level 7 facility, located within the new Northern Reception Center, located just south of the main facility. The Northern Reception Center (NRC), accepts incoming prisoners from the county jails in the northern two-thirds of the state.

Graham and Lewis were found guilty on all charges by a Bronx jury on May 14, 2012. It took the jury approximately three hours to deliberate a guilty verdict. Lewis was able to retire in December 2009 with her pension. Graham was terminated from the Department of Correction following the guilty verdict. Each faced up to four years in prison, however, Graham and Lewis were both sentenced to 500 hours of community service and ordered to pay $1,000.00 in fines on August 7, 2012, when they were sentenced.
Jason Echevarria suffered from bipolar disorder and was housed in the unit reserved for mentally ill inmates. At one point, he had been placed in solitary confinement after several suicide attempts.On February 15, 2014, Jerome Murdough, a homeless veteran in jail on an accusation of trespassing, was found dead in his cell. After being in jail for one week, he died from overexposure to heat. His cell was over 100 degrees, and he had taken prescription drugs which increase sensitivity to heat. Murdough had been complaining for hours about the heat but was ignored by prison guards. Murdough had been arrested for camping out on the stairwell of a New York Housing Authority building during the freezing polar vortex of 2014; his bail was set at $2,500. A settlement of $2.25 million occurred.

The prison housed juvenile inmates until 2018. The move was prompted by a law passed by New York state in 2017 requiring that juvenile inmates under 18 be housed separately from adults.
The New York State Commission of Correction, which oversees New York City’s jails, issued a report in February 2018 citing numerous violations in the facility on the part of the city and a significant increase in violent incidents from 2016 to 2017. It suggested that the state might move to close Rikers Island before the city’s 10-year deadline, which is not legally binding. On October 17, 2019, the City Council voted for an over $8 billion plan to close the Rikers Island prisons and other New York City jails by 2026, and replace them with four borough-based jails. New prisons are planned, but council members said that a move from arrests to tickets, not prosecuting misdemeanors, and a state law set to eliminate cash bail for misdemeanors would reduce the need for jails. On August 18, 2012, inmate Jason Echevarria swallowed a packet of powdered detergent, which had been given to inmates to clean out their cells after there was a leakage of raw sewage from the toilets. Echevarria began vomiting and complaining of severe pain. Terrence Pendergrass, the supervisor of the unit, was told by a correctional officer of Echevarria’s condition. According to The New York Times, “… the captain told the officer not to bother him unless ‘there was a dead body,’ the complaint said”. Several correctional officers passed through his unit but he received no medical attention and was found dead in his cell the following morning. The medical examiner ruled his death a homicide, citing “neglect and denial of medical care”. Brian Coll, a correctional officer, and Ronald Spear got into an altercation when Spear was told by the doctor that he could not be seen until later that day. Coll began punching Spear in the face and body. According to The New York Times, “Another officer grabbed Mr. Spear and with Mr. Taylor’s help [Byron Taylor, former correctional officer], pinned him down. The complaint says Mr. Coll kicked Mr. Spear several times in the head, and knelt down, telling him, ‘Remember that I’m the one who did this to you'”. When a Rikers Island medical team reached Spear, he was unresponsive, and after failed attempts to revive him, he was pronounced dead. An investigation into the incident found that Coll and two other officers conspired to cover up how Spear died.

In January 2014, Rolando Perez was arrested for petty burglary and awaiting trial at Rikers. Perez suffered from a severe seizure disorder since the age of 16 and had taken medication to control his seizures ever since. Perez was being detained in solitary confinement after getting into a fight with another inmate. In an exclusive video obtained by Eyewitness News, Perez is heard screaming for his medication. After being denied anti-seizure medication, at the age of 36, Perez was found dead due to seizure and heart problems. In 2019, Perez’s girlfriend was awarded $3.5 million in a settlement over his death.
In 1986, a federal appeals court ruled that strip searches could not be performed on people arrested on misdemeanor charges, like fare evasion on the subway, or marijuana smoking. The case itself was brought by Ann Weber, who was arrested for making an inflated claim on a 911 call, after her son was attacked while leaving her daughter’s wedding. She was brought to jail still dressed in formal wedding attire, locked in a cell, and forced to strip and expose her cavities for search in the hour it took for her daughter to arrive and post bail.

The New York City Department of Correction reported that in fiscal year 2012 more than 14.4 percent of adolescents detained at Rikers Island between the ages of 16 and 18 were held in at least one period of solitary confinement while detained. The average length of time young people spent in solitary confinement at Rikers Island was 43 days. More than 48 percent of adolescents at this institution have diagnosed mental health problems.After a year of consideration, the Lippmann Commission released a report of recommendations for closing the jail complex. De Blasio did not specifically endorse the findings of the commission, and it is expected to provide the broad outline of the plan to close Rikers when it was announced. The Lippman Commission proposed a 10-year plan to close the ten jails currently on the island and replace them with smaller jails, one in each borough closer to the courthouses. The population at Rikers Island would have to decrease from current average of 10,000 to approximately 5,000. According to The Mayor’s Office of Criminal Justice, key strategies in shrinking the Rikers population has included addressing causes of case delays, identifying individuals that could be granted alternatives to jail time, and improving programming and discharge services. Since 1991, the Rikers population has dropped by more than 50%, when the average daily population was 21,688. The intention to close the prison complex within 10 years was endorsed by former Mayor Bill de Blasio on March 31, after the New York Post leaked the findings of the Lippman Commission.Layleen Xtravaganza Cubilette-Polanco was a 27-year-old Afro-Latina transgender woman who died at Rikers Island, New York City’s main jail complex, on June 7, 2019, in solitary confinement after staff failed to provide her with medical care that could have saved her life for 47 minutes following an epileptic seizure. After a six-month investigation, the New York City Department of Investigation (DOI) and Bronx District Attorney Darcel Clark claimed that staff members were not responsible for Polanco’s death.

The island was used as a military training ground during the Civil War. The first regiment to use the Island was the 9th New York Infantry, also known as Hawkins’ Zouaves, which arrived there on May 15, 1861. Hawkins’ Zouaves was followed by the 36th New York State Volunteers on June 23, which was followed by the Anderson Zouaves on July 15, 1861. The Anderson Zouaves were commanded by John Lafayette Riker who was related to the owners of the island. The camp of the Anderson Zouaves was named Camp Astor in compliment to millionaire John Jacob Astor Jr. who provided funding for the army, and who appears to have made a significant contribution to the raising of the Anderson Zouaves in particular, with the Astor ladies being credited with the manufacture of the zouave uniforms worn by the recruits of this regiment. Rikers Island was subsequently used by numerous other Civil War regiments, but the name “Camp Astor” was specific to the Anderson Zouaves and did not become a general name for the military encampment on the island.
On September 4, 2013, Ballard was locked in his cell as punishment for making inappropriate gestures at a female correctional officer. According to The New York Times, “the lawsuit said, ‘Not a single nurse, doctor or other medical or mental health provider entered his cell'”. On September 11, Ballard died at the age of 39, having been confined inside his cell for seven days without access to his medication or medical treatment. When officers finally came to the aid of Ballard, he was naked, unresponsive, and covered in feces. His genitals were swollen and badly infected due to the result of injuries suffered after he tied a band around his penis.

Conditions on Rikers Island have drastically deteriorated since the onset of COVID-19, due to a combination of viral outbreaks, staffing shortages, and exacerbated mental health crises among detainees. There were 15 reported deaths of incarcerated people on Rikers Island in 2021: William Diaz-Guzman, age 30, Tomas Carlo Camacho, age 48, Javier Valasco, age 37, Thomas Earl Braunson III, age 35, Richard Blake, age 45, Jose Mejia Martinez, age 34, Robert Jackson, age 42, Brandon Rodriguez, age 25, Segundo Guallpa, age 58, Esias Johnson, age 24, Isa Abdul-Karim, age 41, Stephan Khadu, age 24, Victor Mercado, age 64, Malcolm Boatwright, age 28, and William Brown, age 55. Chief Medical Officer Ross McDonald attributed recent deaths to worsening conditions of the jail since the outbreak of COVID-19, calling the situation representative of a “new and worsening emergency”.
On August 28, 2014, a law was passed boosting oversight of the use of solitary confinement at Rikers Island, following intense public outcry after various abuses at the prison. The law requires the prison to publish quarterly reports on their use of solitary confinement, but did not include provisions regarding the protection of prisoners against guard brutality or limiting the use of solitary confinement as a punishment.The island is named after Abraham Rycken, a Dutch settler who moved to Long Island in 1638 and took possession of the island in 1664. Rycken’s descendants, the Ricker family, owned Rikers Island until 1884, when it was sold to the city for $180,000.

The only road access to the island is from Queens, over the 4,200-foot (0.80 mi; 1,300 m; 1.3 km) three-lane Francis Buono Bridge, dedicated on November 22, 1966, by Mayor John Lindsay. The street address is 15 Hazen St. E.Elmhurst, NY 11370. Before the bridge was constructed, the only access to the island was by ferry. Transportation is also provided by the Q100 MTA Regional Bus Operations route. In addition, privately operated shuttles connect the parking lot at the south end to the island. Bus service within the island for people visiting inmates is provided by the New York City Department of Correction on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays.Rikers is close to the runways of LaGuardia Airport. On February 1, 1957, Northeast Airlines Flight 823 crashed onto Rikers Island shortly after departing LaGuardia Airport, killing 20 and injuring 78 out of a total of 95 passengers and 6 crew. After the crash, department personnel and inmates ran to the site to help survivors. As a result of their actions, of the 57 inmates who assisted with the rescue effort, 30 were released and 16 received a sentence reduction of six months by the N.Y.C. Parole Board. Governor Averell Harriman also granted commutation of sentence to 11 men serving definite sentences: two received a six-months’ reduction; one workhouse and eight penitentiary definites became eligible for immediate release.

In 2016, Brian Coll was convicted of one count of death resulting from deprivation of rights under color of law, one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice, one count of obstruction of justice, one count of filing false forms, and one count of conspiracy to file false forms. He was sentenced for 30 years in prison. Byron Taylor pleaded guilty to one count of perjury for lying to a federal grand jury, and one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice. Anthony Torres pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice and file false reports, and one count of filing a false report.
During Mayor David Dinkins’ term as mayor of New York, the jail filled to overflowing, and an 800-bed barge was installed on the East River to accommodate the extra inmates. The barge is called the Vernon C. Bain Correctional Center (VCBC), and is also known simply as “The Boat”. VCBC is located at 1 Halleck St, Bronx, NY 10474, at the end of Hunts Point, near the Fulton Fish Market. The keel for the Vernon C. Bain was laid in 1989 at the Avondale Shipyard in New Orleans. Upon completion, VCBC was towed up from Louisiana to its current mooring, and attached to two “Crandall Arms”. It opened for use as a facility in 1992. Originally it had been leased to the NYC Department of Juvenile Justice, while Spofford Juvenile Center was under reconstruction. VCBC was formerly known as Maritime Facility #3 (MTF3); facilities 1 and 2 were reconstructed British military transport barges, or BIBBYs (British Industries Boat Building Yard), used during the Falklands War, both of which could house 800 soldiers, but only 200 inmates after their conversion. MTFs 1 and 2 were anchored on either side of Manhattan at East River pier 17, near 20th street, in the Hudson River. In addition, there were two smaller 1950s-era Staten Island Ferry boats, both converted to house 162 inmates each. The ferry boats were sold for salvage around 2003, and the owner of the shipyard that built VCBC, Avondale Shipyard, bought the two BIBBYs. VCBC is the only vessel of its type in the world. Prior to modification for use by New York City, it cost $161 million to construct. The initial plan for acquiring the vessel, because of the way New York City makes capital purchases, had to begin at least five years before the keel was laid, during the tenure of Ed Koch. In 1883, New York City’s Commission of Charities and Corrections expressed an interest in purchasing the island for use as a work-house. Any such purchase would have to be approved by the state. In January 1884, state senator Frederick S. Gibbs introduced a bill in the state senate authorizing the commission to purchase the island. In May 1884 Governor Grover Cleveland signed a bill authorizing the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections to purchase the island for a sum no greater than $180,000. At the time, the island was within the boundaries of Long Island City, which was located in Queens County, which was not yet part of New York City, and this potential transfer set off squabbling between politicians of Long Island City, Queens County, and New York City. On July 31, 1884, a compromise was agreed to by all three entities, New York City agreed to pay a total of $3,000, to be disbursed as $2,500 to Long Island City and $500 to Queens County. On August 4, 1884, the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections, Jacob Hess, signed a contract purchasing the island from John T. Wilson, a descendant of the Ryker family, for $180,000: $179,000 to Wilson and $1,000 for a title search. The net expansion of the island enabled the jail facilities to also expand. The original penitentiary building, completed in 1935, was called HDM or the House of Detention for Men; it became a maximum security facility called the James A. Thomas Center and closed due to structural issues in 2000. “Eric Adams, a former NYPD captain, swept into the mayor’s office promising a pro-law enforcement agenda that included supporting the old guard that had long decided how things ran on the island. Adams replaced the reform-minded jails commissioner Vincent Schiraldi with his own pick, Louis Molina, whose administration immediately pushed out top department leaders supportive of the LGBTQ+ unit and shelved a draft policy directive aimed at getting more trans and gender-nonconforming detainees into gender-aligned housing. This institutional reversal has stranded numerous trans and gender-nonconforming detainees in dangerous, male housing units for weeks or months on end, subjecting many to egregious forms of physical and sexual violence, according to dozens of internal emails, Department of Correction records, and interviews with more than 20 people who work or live in city jails, including current and former corrections staffers, incarcerated trans women, jail guards and attorneys.” During the AIDS crisis in the 1980s and 1990s, at the request of the Association for Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) and the Executive Director Yolanda Serrano, the prison granted early release to terminal HIV-positive inmates so that they could die peacefully in their own homes.

What's the biggest prison in us?
Louisiana State Penitentiary, once known as “America’s Bloodiest Prison,” is the largest maximum security prison in the nation. The penitentiary’s storied history of instability and reform serve as a reminder of the progress made within corrections and the possibilities of rehabilitation.
Facilities located on the island include Otis Bantum Correctional Center (OBCC), Robert N. Davoren Complex (RNDC, formerly ARDC), Anna M. Kross Center (AMKC), George Motchan Detention Center (GMDC), North Infirmary Command (NIC), Rose M. Singer Center (RMSC), Eric M. Taylor Center (EMTC, formerly CIFM), James A. Thomas Center (JATC) (no longer used to house inmates), George R. Vierno Center (GRVC) West Facility (WF), Harold A. Wildstein (no longer in use), and Walter B. Keane (no longer in use). The Bantum, Kross, Motchan, and Vierno facilities house detained male adults. Taylor houses sentenced male adolescents and adults. Davoren primarily houses male inmates who are of ages 18 through 21. Singer houses detained and sentenced female adolescents and adults. North Infirmary primarily houses inmates who require medical attention from an infirmary. West Facility houses inmates who have diseases that are contagious. The average daily inmate population on the island is about 10,000, although it can hold a maximum of 15,000. The daytime population (including prisoners, staff, and visitors) can be as high as 20,000.The city expressed a desire to open a jail for men on Rikers Island as early as 1925, in order to replace their overburdened and dilapidated jail on Welfare Island, now Roosevelt Island; the jail was opened in 1932. Landfill continued to be added to the island until 1943, eventually enlarging the original 90-acre (36 ha) island to 415 acres (168 ha). This required the permission of the federal government, since the expansion extended the island’s pier line. Also, 200 acres (81 ha) were stripped from Rikers to help fill in the new North Beach Airport, which opened in 1939 and was later renamed LaGuardia Airport. In August 2014, US Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Preet Bharara, issued a report condemning the systematic abuse and violation of prisoners’ constitutional rights. Despite this and many other egregious incidents of abuse, few correctional officers have been prosecuted successfully or even removed from their positions. Also in August 2014, Bharara issued a damning report on the treatment of juvenile prisoners at Rikers. The report identified “a pattern and practice of conduct at Rikers that violates the constitutional rights of adolescent inmates”. The report describes the “rampant use of unnecessary and excessive force by DOC staff”, as well as dangers to inmates including inadequate protection from violence caused by other inmates, a culture that uses violence as a means to control inmates, and heavy use of solitary confinement (“punitive segregation”) for discipline. The report details the guards’ frequent use of violence, including “headshots” (blows to the head or face), particularly in areas without video surveillance. This violence is perpetrated as punishment or retribution against the inmates, or “In response to inmates’ verbal altercations with officers”. In the months following, there had been plans to build an additional facility on the island that consisted of 1,500 beds. In November 2016, New York City Department of Correction Commissioner Joseph Ponte said, “As we look at construction and now with the…kind of the movement to close Rikers all those things politically have to be taken into consideration. So the 1,500 bed facility on Rikers is still at…at a kind of pause right now”.

What is NYC worst prison?
Riker’s Island, Bronx Riker’s Island happens to be the most famous jail in the world. It is among the largest and worst prisons in New York State. On any given day, you can find as many as 10,000 prisoners jailed there. Most of New York’s violent criminals have spent their time on Riker’s Island.
According to The New York Times, some 129 inmates, 77% of whom were diagnosed as mentally ill, suffered “serious injuries” in altercations with prison guards over an 11-month period in 2013. These injuries were “beyond the capacity” of the prison doctors to treat successfully. Another Times article stated that “the lawsuit said, ‘Rather than provide the critical care required’ medical staff and correctional officers ‘who knew Mr. Ballard could not survive without medication, essentially stood by and watched as Mr. Ballard languished, deteriorated and ultimately died.'” In 2016, the city agreed to pay $5.75 million to settle the lawsuit.On June 22, 2017, former Mayor de Blasio released his plan for a 10-year shutdown of the facility, saying that it was not a “quick fix”: “This will be a long a difficult path,” he wrote. The city will reduce the inmate population of Rikers through the use of alternative facilities and reforms such as making the payment of bail easier and improving mental health facilities and programs. Two “diversion centers” will assist people with mental health problems and will work with police to find options other than incarceration. Smaller jail facilities will be open throughout the city, but the plan does not fully describe how, where, and when that will occur.Terrence Pendergrass was demoted and suspended without pay, following the incident, and in December 2014, he was convicted of one count of denying Echevarria medical care, resulting in death. In June 2015, Terrence Pendergrass was sentenced to five years in prison. In November 2015, Echevarria’s family was awarded a $3.8 million settlement regarding the matter.In February 2016, the Independent Commission on New York City Criminal Justice and Incarceration Reform, also known as the Lippman Commission since it is chaired by former Chief Judge of the State of New York Jonathan Lippman, was convened by New York City Council Speaker Melissa Mark-Viverito to review the entirety of the city’s criminal justice system. In April of that year, Glenn E. Martin launched a campaign that called for the closure of the Rikers Island Jail Complex. In September 2016, the campaign organized a march from Queens Plaza to the Rikers Island Bridge to send a message to former Mayor Bill de Blasio that New York City is united in demanding the jail complex be closed. On February 4, 2009, The New York Times reported that “the pattern of cases suggests that city correctional officials have been aware of a problem in which Rikers guards have acquiesced or encouraged violence among inmates.” The Times added that “There have been at least seven lawsuits filed in Federal District Court in Manhattan accusing guards of complicity or acquiescence in inmate violence at Rikers, a complex of 10 detention facilities which, along with several other jails around the city, hold about 13,000 prisoners, most of whom are pretrial detainees. None of the seven suits has gone to trial. In the three that were settled, the city admitted no liability or wrongdoing.” In June 2015, Browder died by suicide by hanging. The conditions of his detention were widely seen as having caused his mental condition. He had multiple prior suicide attempts while incarcerated. Days after his death, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy invoked Browder’s experience in his opinion on Davis v. Ayala. On January 25, 2016, President Barack Obama wrote an article in The Washington Post criticizing the “overuse” of solitary confinement in American jails, basing his arguments largely on Browder’s case. He signed an executive order banning solitary confinement of juveniles in federal prisons.Staten Island native Eugene “Sonny” Castelle was battling an addiction to pain killers when he was arrested in Florida for heroin possession with intent to sell. This arrest was in violation of the terms of a drug-related plea agreement in New York. On November 2, 2016, Castelle was sent to Rikers and was found dead six days later, at the Anna M. Kross Center. An inmate told the Daily News that Castelle had taken a dose of methadone, using another prisoner’s prescription when he died. Castelle was vomiting and struggling to stand. Another inmate helped Castelle to ‘the bubble’ watch post to ask for medical help. The correctional officer inside was sleeping, and angrily dismissed them both, the inmate said. The following morning, Castelle was found by a correctional officer and medical staff unresponsive and was declared dead seven minutes later.

A drawing by artist Salvador Dalí, done as an apology because he was unable to attend a talk about art for the prisoners at Rikers Island, hung in the inmate dining room in J.A.T.C. (HDM) from 1965 to 1981, when it was moved to the prison lobby in E.M.T.C. (C76) for safekeeping. The drawing was stolen in March 2003 and replaced with a fake. Three correctional officers and an assistant deputy warden were arrested and charged, and though the three later pleaded guilty and one was acquitted, the drawing has not been recovered.
However, the practice did not die. Another suit was filed against the city in 2007 for performing strip searches on inmates taken to Rikers on misdemeanor charges. On October 4, 2007, the New York City Department of Corrections conceded that tens of thousands of nonviolent inmates taken to Rikers Island on misdemeanor charges had been wrongly strip-searched in violation of a 2002 court settlement, and were entitled to payment for damages. The policy was kept in place despite a United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruling in 2001 that strip-searches of misdemeanor suspects were illegal, unless officials suspected that they were carrying contraband…” [Lead lawyer Richard D.] Emery charged in his papers that department officials “repeatedly resorted to lying to cover up deliberate indifference to the continued practice of humiliating detainees by forcing them to strip naked in groups.” This class action suit won $33 million in damages. After New York City was banned by the courts in 1922 from ocean dumping of garbage, much of it ended up on Rikers Island, even though the island already had 12 mountains of garbage 40 to 130 feet tall; still, it took in 1.5 million cubic yards of additional refuse, more than the amount of dirt displaced by the building of the World Trade Center. Since much of the garbage was composed of ash from coal heating and incinerators, there were frequent spontaneous phosphorescent fires, even in the wintertime, in the snow. One warden described it in 1934: “At night it is like a forest of Christmas trees – first one little light … then another, until the whole hillside is lit up with little fires. … It was beautiful.” The island was also plagued with rats, which at one point were so prevalent that after “poison gas, poison bait, ferocious dogs and pigs” failed to control them, one New Yorker tried to organize a hunting party to kill them off. It was the efforts of “master builder” Robert Moses, who did not want the unsightly island to be the backdrop for his carefully landscaped 1939 World’s Fair, to get the island cleaned up, and have the city’s garbage sent elsewhere—ultimately to the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. One possible reuse proposal was to build a low-rise residential development, although the island’s distance from mass transit, proximity to LaGuardia Airport, and leakage of toxic methane gas from its landfill base would pose problems for the proposed development. It would also mean that each residential unit would cost about twice as much to construct as a normal unit in New York City. The residential development would connect the island to the mainland for the expansion of the airport, using it as a park, for solid-waste management or for manufacturing. However, the commission specifically ruled out its use for private residences. In light of possible closure of the jail complex, New York City Public Advocate Letitia James suggested renaming the island after Kalief Browder, an inmate who committed suicide after being jailed at Rikers.On September 29, 2014, Judge Tynia Richard offered a sharp rebuke to the Department of Corrections, recommending that six correctional officers be fired. This group, led by Captain Budnarine Behari, had participated in the brutal beating of Robert Hinton, a mentally ill inmate, while he was hog-tied, because he had protested being moved from his cell by sitting down. Hinton’s fellow inmates watched as he was dragged down the hallways while hog-tied to a solitary confinement cell where he was beaten. While this ruling was one of the most severe against the Department of Corrections in many years, almost two years had elapsed between the beating and the Justice Department’s ruling, during which time the perpetrators in this attack were involved in more inmate beatings at Rikers Island.

Named after Abraham Rycken, who took possession of the island in 1664, the island was originally under 100 acres (40 ha) in size, but has since grown to more than 400 acres (160 ha). The first stages of expansion were accomplished largely by convict labor hauling in ashes for landfill. The island is politically part of the Bronx, although bridge access is only available from Queens. It is part of Queens Community Board 1 and uses an East Elmhurst, Queens, ZIP Code of 11370 for mail.
A video of the incident revealed that multiple staff members knocked on Polanco’s cell door and that she was unresponsive. In the presence of her unresponsive body, officers could be seen laughing. The DOI stated that officers thought Polanco was napping and that the laughter was unrelated. A wrongful death lawsuit was filed by David Shanies, the attorney for the Polanco family. Shanies claimed that records showed that Polanco’s epilepsy was “well known” and that she had suffered multiple seizures while at Rikers.Polanco’s death reignited conversations about banning cash bail and pretrial detention. Melania Brown, Polanco’s sister, and many others called for banning solitary confinement in New York City after Polanco’s death. Polanco was the tenth black trans woman to die in 2019. On June 1, 2007, Captain Sherman Graham and Assistant Deputy Warden Gail Lewis were arrested by the New York City Department of Investigation (DOI) for covering up an assault on an inmate. The arrest came after both were indicted by a Bronx grand jury. It is alleged that on October 4, 2006, Graham assaulted an inmate after he refused to comply with strip searching procedures at the Robert N. Davoren Center (RNDC, C-74). The assault occurred in front of 15 correctional academy recruits in training. After the assault, Graham ordered the recruits to write on their Use of Force Witness Reports that Graham assaulted the inmate in self-defense after the inmate punched Graham. Lewis, who was Graham’s supervisor, did not intervene to stop the attack. Lewis also submitted a false Use of Force Witness Report. Charges against Graham include 16 counts of falsifying business records, 16 counts of offering a false instrument for filing in the first degree, 16 counts of official misconduct, a class A misdemeanor and one count of attempted assault in the third degree. Lewis was charged with falsifying business records, offering a false instrument for filing and official misconduct. The investigation started when the DOI received a tip following an anti-corruption presentation at the Academy in October 2006 on the day before graduation. Prior to this decision, all prisoners taken to Rikers, no matter the level of their accusation, were strip searched. These searches often took place in groups of 10 to 12 and involved genital and anal searches. Despite the court’s ruling, the practice lived on, costing New York City taxpayers a total of $81 million in settlements to the victims of these illegal searches. In 2001, a ruling was reached in New York reinforcing the illegality of strip searches for misdemeanor detainees, and demanding that the city pay up to $50 million to the tens of thousands of people who were illegally searched over the years.Rikers Island has been referred to as the world’s largest penal colony. For comparison, Europe’s largest correctional facility, Marmara Prison in European Turkey, sits on 256 acres (104 ha) and houses 10,904 prisoners.