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L Shaped Ambush

Ambushes were widely utilized by the Lusitanians, in particular by their chieftain Viriathus. Their usual tactic, called concursare, involved repeatedly charging and retreating, forcing the enemy to eventually give them chase, in order to set up ambushes in difficult terrain where allied forces would be awaiting. In his first victory, he eluded the siege of Roman praetor Gaius Vetilius and attracted him to a narrow pass next to the Barbesuda river, where he destroyed his army and killed the praetor. Viriathus’s ability to turn chases into ambushes would grant him victories over a number of Roman generals. Another famous Lusitanian ambush was performed by Curius and Apuleius on Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus, who led a numerically superior army complete with war elephants and Numidian cavalry. The ambush allowed Curius and Apuleius to steal Servilianus’s loot train, although a tactic error in their retreat led to the Romans retaking the train and putting the Lusitanians to flight. Viriathus later defeated Servilianus with a surprise attack.

According to Muslim tradition, Islamic Prophet Muhammad used ambush tactics in his military campaigns. His first such use was during the Caravan raids. In the Kharrar caravan raid, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas was ordered to lead a raid against the Quraysh. His group consisted of about twenty Muhajirs. This raid was about a month after the previous one. Sa’d, with his soldiers, set up an ambush in the valley of Kharrar on the road to Mecca and waited to raid a Meccan caravan returning from Syria. However, the caravan had already passed and the Muslims returned to Medina without any loot.
One important feature of the ambush was that the target units should ‘pile up’ after being attacked, thus preventing them any easy means of withdrawal from the kill zone and hindering their use of heavy weapons and supporting fire. Terrain was usually selected which would facilitate this and slow down the enemy. Any terrain around the ambush site which was not favorable to the ambushing force, or which offered some protection to the target, was heavily mined and booby trapped or pre-registered for mortars.

Possibly the most famous ambush in ancient warfare was that sprung by Germanic warchief Arminius against the Romans at Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. This particular ambush was to affect the course of Western history. The Germanic forces demonstrated several principles needed for a successful ambush. They took cover in difficult forested terrain, allowing the warriors time and space to mass without detection. They had the element of surprise, and this was also aided by the defection of Arminius from Roman ranks prior to the battle. They sprang the attack when the Romans were most vulnerable; when they had left their fortified camp, and were on the march in a pounding rainstorm.
Recon methods: Reconnaissance elements observing a potential ambush target on the move generally stayed 300–500 meters away. Sometimes a “leapfrogging” recon technique was used. Surveillance units were echeloned one behind the other. As the enemy drew close to the first, it fell back behind the last recon team, leaving an advance group in its place. This one in turn fell back as the enemy again closed the gap, and the cycle rotated. This method helped keep the enemy under continuous observation from a variety of vantage points, and allowed the recon groups to cover one another.

An ambush is a surprise attack by people lying in wait in a concealed position. Ambushes have been used consistently throughout history, from ancient to modern warfare. In the 20th century, an ambush might involve thousands of soldiers on a large scale, such as over a choke point such as a mountain pass, or a small irregulars band or insurgent group attacking a regular armed force patrols. Theoretically, a single well-armed and concealed soldier could ambush other troops in a surprise attack. Sometimes an ambush can involve the exclusive or combined use of improvised explosive devices, that allow the attackers to hit enemy convoys or patrols while minimizing the risk of being exposed to return fire.
This use by early people of ambushing may date as far back as two million years when anthropologists have recently suggested that ambush techniques were used to hunt large game.There are many notable examples of ambushes during the Roman-Persian Wars. A year after their victory at Carrhae, the Parthians invaded Syria but were driven back after a Roman ambush near Antigonia. Roman Emperor Julian was mortally wounded in an ambush near Samarra in 363 during the retreat from his Persian campaign. A Byzantine invasion of Persian Armenia was repelled by a small force at Anglon who performed a meticulous ambush by using the rough terrain as force multiplier and concealing in houses. Heraclius’ discovery of a planned ambush by Shahrbaraz in 622 was a decisive factor in his campaign.

Arab tribes during Muhammad’s era also used ambush tactics. One example retold in Muslim tradition is said to have taken place during the First Raid on Banu Thalabah. The Banu Thalabah tribe were already aware of the impending attack; so they lay in wait for the Muslims, and when Muhammad ibn Maslama arrived at the site, the Banu Thalabah with 100 men ambushed the Muslims while they were making preparation to sleep and, after a brief resistance, killed them all except for Muhammad ibn Maslama, who feigned death. A Muslim who happened to pass that way found him and assisted him to return to Medina. The raid was unsuccessful.
In modern warfare, an ambush is most often employed by ground troops up to platoon size against enemy targets, which may be other ground troops, or possibly vehicles. However, in some situations, especially when deep behind enemy lines, the actual attack will be carried out by a platoon, a company-sized unit will be deployed to support the attack group, setting up and maintaining a forward patrol harbour from which the attacking force will deploy, and to which they will retire after the attack. Command posts: When deploying into an ambush site, the NVA first occupied several observation posts, placed to detect the enemy as early as possible and to report on the formation it was using, its strength and firepower, as well as to provide early warning to the unit commander. Usually one main OP and several secondary OPs were established. Runners and occasionally radios were used to communicate between the OPs and the main command post. The OPs were located so that they could observe enemy movement into the ambush and often they would remain in position throughout the ambush in order to report routes of reinforcement and withdrawal by the enemy as well as his maneuver options. Frequently the OPs were reinforced to squad size and served as flank security. The command post was situated in a central location, often on terrain which afforded it a vantage point overlooking the ambush site. The Germans did not dawdle at the hour of decision but attacked quickly, using a massive series of short, rapid, vicious charges against the length of the whole Roman line, with charging units sometimes withdrawing to the forest to regroup while others took their place. The Germans also used blocking obstacles, erecting a trench and earthen wall to hinder Roman movement along the route of the killing zone. The result was mass slaughter of the Romans, and the destruction of three legions. The Germanic victory caused a limit on Roman expansion in the West. Ultimately, it established the Rhine as the boundary of the Roman Empire for the next four hundred years, until the decline of the Roman influence in the West. The Roman Empire made no further concerted attempts to conquer Germania beyond the Rhine.

One example from ancient times is the Battle of the Trebia river. Hannibal encamped within striking distance of the Romans with the Trebia River between them, and placed a strong force of cavalry and infantry in concealment, near the battle zone. He had noticed, says Polybius, a “place between the two camps, flat indeed and treeless, but well adapted for an ambuscade, as it was traversed by a water-course with steep banks, densely overgrown with brambles and other thorny plants, and here he proposed to lay a stratagem to surprise the enemy”. When the Roman infantry became entangled in combat with his army, the hidden ambush force attacked the Roman infantry in the rear. The result was slaughter and defeat for the Romans. Nevertheless, the battle also displays the effects of good tactical discipline on the part of the ambushed force. Although most of the legions were lost, about 10,000 Romans cut their way through to safety, maintaining unit cohesion. This ability to maintain discipline and break out or maneuver away from a kill zone is a hallmark of good troops and training in any ambush situation. (See Ranger reference below).

Ambushes are complex multi-phase operations and are therefore usually planned in some detail. First, a suitable killing zone is identified. This is the place where the ambush will be laid. It is generally a place where enemy units are expected to pass, and which gives reasonable cover for the deployment, execution and extraction phases of the ambush patrol. A path along a wooded valley floor would be a typical example.
Other elements might also be included if the situation demanded, such as a sniper screen along a nearby avenue of approach to delay enemy reinforcements.

2) Establish Security – Security is two-fold. First, security must be established in the ORP. Second, a security force must be deployed near the ambush site so the force can execute the next two actions.
In the realm of ambushes, there are seemingly endless variations. In order to clarify things a bit we try to classify ambushes. We use three specific areas to assist in this classification. These are categories, types, and formations. Below we discuss each of these areas.

L-Shaped – As the graphic depicts, ambush forces form an L during execution. The assault element forms the long leg parallel to the enemy’s direction of movement along the kill zone. The support element forms the short leg at one end of and at a right angle to the assault element. This provides both flanking (long leg) and enfilading (short leg) fires against the enemy. Of course, the L-Shaped formation is highly dependent on the right piece of terrain. That right piece of terrain should contain a sharp bend to it. If you are ambushing mechanized forces; you are looking for a sharp turn in a road. If you are ambushing light forces; you are seeking the same bend in a trail or even a swallow stream. In executing the L-Shaped formation, you must ensure all forces understand the direct fire control measures. As the graphic alludes to, it can be very easy for your assault elements to fire into the security element and vice versa. Forces must know where friendly forces are located at all times.
Ambush Forces – The graphic highlights the locations for the assault, security, and support elements. Please refer to our terminology discussion earlier to review the roles of these elements.

What are the 6 types of maneuver?
The forms of maneuver are envelopment, Turningmovement, infiltration, penetration, and frontal attack. Commanders use these forms of maneuver to orient on the enemy, not terrain.
Hey, we always start with a definition, so let’s begin. An ambush is a surprise attack by fire from concealed positions on a moving or temporarily halted enemy. Depending on the tactical situation and objective; an ambush could also include follow-on maneuver in which the ambush force assaults the enemy in order to destroy his forces. An ambush is clearly enemy focused with no intent to seize or control terrain. This is a pretty simple definition. However, achieving success in the ambush is a far more difficult proposition. We will address actions which will aid in increasing your ability to achieve this success later.RP – The Release Point (RP) is located for forces to move into their positions prior to the execution of the ambush. It may also be utilized in the withdrawal.

It is not uncommon for many to confuse an ambush with a raid. There are some similarities within the two missions. However, there are two significant differences in the two. These differences relate to time and location. In regards to time, the attacker will set the time of attack in a raid. He dictates the initial action. In an ambush, the attacker must wait for the target to get into the location before he initiates action. Thus, the attacker does not set the time of attack in an ambush. In regards to location, the attacker sets the location for the conduct of the ambush. Vice versa, in a raid, the attacker must maneuver to the target’s location. Thus, the target dictates the location in a raid.
4) Prepare the Ambush Site – The recon should have finalized the plan and now it is time for prep. This prep will likely constitute several actions. These could include emplacing obstacles in and around the kill zone, preparing positions for the ambush forces, rehearsing critical actions and time-lines in preparation for the ambush.Kill Zone – As the name suggests, it is roughly a parallel line. Again, the more distance from start to end– the better. That means more targets if things go as planned. Linear (or Line) – A linear ambush places both its’ assault and support elements on line, parallel to the kill zone. This usually provides a fairly lengthy kill zone with fires being directed at the flanks of the enemy. Obviously, you want to get as much of the enemy as possible in the kill zone prior to firing the first round. Fire too early or too late and the availability of targets are diminished. Additionally, a well-disciplined enemy will utilize dispersion in his maneuver. Dispersed vehicles again, limit the availability of targets in the linear ambush. A linear ambush is usually easier to execute and command and control than other formations. Support Element – The support element sets the conditions for success for the assault element. Its’ chief task is to fix enemy elements once they maneuver into the kill zone. In other words, if the enemy attempts (as they should) to maneuver out of the kill zone, they will place fires on the enemy to keep them into the kill zone. These fires are normally of the direct fire variety, but can also be called in, indirect fires. In our example, you would normally use your weapons squad (if organized) as the support element. The platoon sergeant would be positioned with them. Short Leg – The support element positions itself here along with a small security team. Remember, the support element sets the conditions for the assault force. Usually, this will require them to fix forces in their area. This should make it difficult for enemy forces to withdraw and keep them in the kill zone. Every mission has a set of basic fundamentals, which if adhered to will greatly assist in mission accomplishment – the ambush is no different. Below we will highlight the critical fundamentals which apply to the conduct of an ambush.

Kill Zone – Within the ambush site, this is the location where you will fire your weapons in order to achieve your purpose. In selecting a kill zone, you want terrain in which obviously the enemy is going to enter; it has terrain which can channelize the enemy; and is large enough so that the ambush force can destroy numerous enemy vehicles.3) Recon the Ambush Site – A recon (of some sort) of the ambush site has probably already been completed. However, this recon may have been by satellite, UAV, or a recon unit and conducted hours or even days earlier. The force executing the ambush must conduct its’ own recon at the site. As in everything in tactics, nothing takes the place of walking the ground in which you will conduct operations. Long Leg – The assault element is positioned to inflict as much destruction as possible in the kill zone. To assist them, a security team has been positioned on the flank. Additionally, their medical and demo assets and forces to aid with enemy prisoners of war. Ambush Site – This is the location where you will conduct the ambush. This includes all the terrain occupied by the attacker in the execution of the ambush.The graphic above displays the central ambush and three smaller point ambushes. With four ambushes planned (simultaneously or sequentially), you can understand the need for synchronization and discipline. V-Shaped Ambush — This formation is not as utilized as the linear or L, but when it is executed it can produce devastating results. In the V (see above diagram), the assault elements are positioned on the flanks of the kill zone thus, forming the V. This formation should enable the assault force to shoot interlocking fires into the kill zone. With friendly fires dispersed and the angles of fire a little more extreme than other formations; this can lead to fratricide potential without good command and control and discipline. Again, the perfect piece of terrain is needed to execute the V. If it is found, the enemy will subject to massive amounts of fire at various angles. Near Ambush – In a near ambush, the assault element is placed very close to the kill zone which they will fire into. This distance is normally 50 meters or less. Terrain in which you would conduct a near ambush is fairly obvious. This could include urban environments, wooded areas, etc…. — Really any terrain in which your fields of fire are very constrained.

We place ambushes in two categories. These are hasty and deliberate. Just like any attack, the differences lie in time available for planning and preparation. We’ll discuss both below:
Objective Rally Point (ORP) – This is a location the force will occupy prior to maneuvering to the ambush site. In determining a location for an ORP, you want to select an area which the force can’t be seen or heard from the ambush site and is out of enemy small arms range. Once in the ORP, the force will recon the ambush site, issue final changes to the plan, and conduct final preparations for the mission. Once the unit completes the ambush, it will also utilize an ORP to assemble all forces prior to executing its’ complete withdrawal. Protective Obstacles – These are emplaced between the kill zone and the assault force. These obstacles provide security for the assault force. They also assist in providing the assault force time when they displace. These obstacles can range from wire (shown on the graphic) to minefields. As always, once obstacles are emplaced you ensure friendly forces know where they are so they do not run into them. There are few things worse than having to breach friendly obstacles. The one thing that is worse is suffering casualties to a friendly obstacle. Security Element – A critical, but sometimes overlooked part of the ambush force is the security element. The security element can assume various roles based the tactical situation. These include: 1) Providing protection for the assault and support elements while they prepare and execute the ambush. 2) Securing the ORP. This comes into effect if the force will maneuver back to that location. 3) Recon and secure the force’s withdrawal route. 4) Be available to support the assault or support forces if the tactical situation dictates. In our above example, a rifle squad would assume the role of the security force. That squad leader would be in charge of that element.This article has several errors which include repeated words, misspelled words, missing words, disorganized phrases, and misused punctuation marks such as apostrophes. These mistakes are in addition to the false information you used in one of your daily quiz questions, claiming that the M48 and T54-55 tanks were used in WWII. If you want to be credible, you should hire writers that can do their job without making so many errors and know history well enough to know when specific vehicles/weapons were used. As it is, I can plainly see that you have neither.

“An enemy may be surprised, which implies that he is thrown off balance. This is the best method of defeating him, for it is so economical, one man taking on to himself the strength of many. Surprise may be considered under two main headings: surprise effected by doing something that the enemy does not expect, and surprise effected by doing something that the enemy cannot counter. The first may be denoted as moral surprise, the second as material.”Limit of Advance – In this example, friendly forces have established a limit of advance. This is in place in case forces conduct an assault following the ambush.

Assault Element – It is the assault element which executes the ambush. This execution could take the form of firing direct fire into the kill zone, assaulting the enemy once it maneuvers into the kill zone, or a combination of both. If an infantry rifle platoon has the mission to conduct the conduct; then a rifle squad will normally be assigned as the assault element. Because of the importance of the assault element, the senior leader on the ground will generally position themselves with the assault element. In the above example, the rifle platoon leader would be with the assault element.Rally Point – Behind the assault/support forces is the rally point. This should be a easily identified piece of terrain where forces can link-up before departing the overall ambush site. If the ambush is conducted in limited visibility; you may have forces placed at the rally point to aid in link-up.6) Withdraw – The operation is not complete or can be considered a success until the ambush force withdraws safely from the ambush site. As with most operations, the withdrawal can be the most challenging piece for a unit. As with the execution, we will address the withdrawal from the ambush site in our next article.

Our first article will provide the foundation for the next article. In this foundation, we will answer the following: 1) What is the definition of an ambush? 2) Why do you conduct ambushes? 3) What is the terminology of the ambush 4) What are the critical actions of an ambush? 5) What are the fundamentals of conducting an ambush? 6) What are the categories of ambushes? 7) What are the types of ambushes? 8) What kinds of ambush formations can a commander utilize in the conduct of an ambush?1) Tactical Maneuver to the ORP –The first step is getting to the ORP. Getting there means being stealthy and not physically and mentally draining the unit before it executes the ambush.Far Ambush – In a far ambush, the assault element is firing into the kill zone at a far greater distance. If terrain is open, then your fields of fire will be extended. Of course, the challenge in a far ambush is finding the cover to place your assault element so they won’t be compromised or threatened. Next, we need to determine what tactical tasks our platoon needs to conduct to successfully execute this ambush. Generally, an ambush consists of a few the following tactical tasks: destroy, support by fire (SBF), isolate, attack by fire (ABF), fix, suppress, block. This is what helps us decide which squad is going to conduct which task in the ambush. Remember, this isn’t set in stone, you can certainly switch up which squads complete which tasks.And now for you nerds out there, we will dive into the doctrinal foundations of an ambush that allow us to put together a plan like the one we walked through.

The Ambush has three different doctrinal classifications (ambush categories, ambush formations, and ambush types), a unique task organization, and phases that are important to understand while planning an ambush.
Next, we have the ambush categories: Hasty Ambush and Deliberate Ambush. These are quite simple and don’t have any cool graphics to go along with. The platoon (or squad) conducts a hasty ambush when it makes visual contact with an enemy force and has time to establish an ambush without being detected. The conduct of the hasty ambush should represent the execution of Disciplined Initiative within the parameters of the commander’s intent. The actions for a hasty ambush should be established in a unit SOP and rehearsed so Soldiers know what to do on the leader’s signal.

For this particular ambush, we will choose the tasks of destroy, SBF, and Isolate. This should be enough to achieve the platoon’s purpose. But now where do we put them?If you want to put together a complete plan, one that your commander or seasoned NCO will be proud of, you must realize we’re hand waving a lot of steps. You should always perform a thorough Mission Analysis (METT-TC) and Course of Action Development (COA DEV), which will be discussed at length in a different article. Doctrine doesn’t specifically state in what order you should add your graphics to a COA Sketch, but I generally follow these steps: 1) Place enemy where you think they will be 2) Place Tactical Tasks on the sketch. 3) Place unit symbols in their assault positions. Though there are several other steps after this, especially when we are planning and depicting direct fire control measures (DFCM) and indirect-fires (IDF), those details will be saved for another article. If you came to read about all the boring doctrine, you may want to scroll on down! While doctrine is certainly important, and we will cover it further down, chances are you came here to see how to put a basic ambush together, and we will show you just that!The first thing we need to do for an ambush is to pick an appropriate piece of terrain. There are many considerations to take into account, generally, you want some high ground to fight from and a good existing natural obstacle to help keep the enemy in the kill zone. This looks like the perfect spot!

What are the three types of ambushes?
Next are the Ambush Types, of which there are three of: Point Ambush, Area Ambush, and Anti-armor Ambush. The differences in these are quite simple. A point ambush consists of a single killzone. An area ambush consists of multiple related killzones, usually on multiple enemy formations.
There are actually a lot of important details missing from this sketch, such as maneuver and direct fire control measures, key weapons, leadership, DO and SO designations, but we will leave that all for another time. For now though, be confident, you can put together a basic ambush plan in just a matter of moments!One of your tasks will always come from your mission statement, but the others are up to the platoon leadership to determine. Just keep in mind that doctrinally a platoon needs an Assault, Support, and Security element.Former Navy SEAL Tim Sheehy announced Tuesday he will seek the 2024 Republican nomination to challenge Montana U.S. Sen. Jon Tester as the Democrat tries to secure a fourth term.

Jack Mandaville is a contributing editor at Coffee or Die Magazine. He liked being a Marine, but loves being a civilian that does commentary on military culture because there’s no real sacrifice involved. He’s a satirical writer, entertainer, and amateur provocateur. His only real love outside of his work opportunities is falling asleep to Netflix.A lot of these third-world enemies of America rely on machismo to justify their willingness to fight. Get a step ahead of them by getting your troops to completely break down and cry like infants with poopy diapers in order to make your adversaries feel sorry for you and not see you as worth fighting. The first step in the Art of War is deception, right? Hell yeah!

Like I said, nature docs are my jam. Have you tried just getting your troops to stand up and start banging a bunch of pots and pans with their arms raised high in the sky? It works for bears. Bears want nothing to do with that kind of commotion. I would imagine an enemy force in a third-world country — who are more than likely being quietly funded by an emerging world power — only dares challenge the US military because we haven’t established how alpha we are in primordial situations. Drop your rifles and just scream at those losers. They’ll find their honey elsewhere.
Marine Corps veteran and unofficial life coach Jack Mandaville has all the right answers for all the toughest questions. Composite by Coffee or Die Magazine.

What was the best ambush ever?
What made them effective? The destruction of three Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD by Arminius is one of the most successful and consequential ambushes in history. Over 20,000 legionnaires and uncounted camp-followers were killed.
You take that borderline-earned Silver Star you’re about to get, build up that résumé, and rise to the highest ranks of the US military — until, of course, one day NBC runs a story about how you got caught banging some major on your staff and you’re forced to retire with full pension and take a six-figure board position with a historically powerful private defense firm. Good times!Whoa. That sounds pretty stressful, pal. Good call on coming to me about this. Being that I’m a straight white male in his late 30s who lives in the suburbs and maintains a relatively sedentary lifestyle, I’ve spent the last few years bingeing numerous Netflix World War II and nature documentaries, so I think I know a little something about late GWOT-era military tactics.

Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, two symbols of World War II animosity between Japan and the United States, are now promoting peace and friendship through a sister park arrangement.
Have you tried crying? Think about it. Watching another man cry uncontrollably is one of the most awkward things you can witness. A guy with cauliflower ear was about to beat my ass in a bar in Akron, Ohio, in 2008 until I just curled up into a ball and started sobbing. Yeah, I killed my pride, but at least I saved my teeth. He knew, in that moment, that beating me up would be only a slight step above beating up a developmentally disabled person, so he spared me the ass kicking I wasn’t willing to take.Every year, airmen from the New York Air National Guard summer in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, a nowhere Arctic town with more than 80 years of US military history.

At the end of World War II, the United States launched Operation Paperclip, a mission to draft its former enemies to stay ahead of its soon-to-be-former ally: the Soviet Union.
I’d say the first thing you do, above all else, is look at the positives. If you survive this thing, you’ll have a great opportunity to write yourself up for a juicy award. And with a name like “Vanderbahn IV,” it doesn’t take much deducing for me to know that you’re an academy grad.I dunno, man. Netflix just rereleased World War II in Colour. I’m watching it as I write this, and I can’t spend my valuable time stressing out about your problems. I’ll be thinking about you next Veterans Day or maybe even Memorial Day — depending on how this firefight works out for you. Gotta go! They’re talking about Operation Barbarossa, and boy is Hitler in for a doozy with them Russians.

History has generally regarded Fabius and his Fabian strategy as what saved Rome from defeat. It gave the city time to recover from Lake Trasimene and time to rebuild its strength.“Let us relieve the Romans of the anxiety they have so long experienced,” he is quoted as having said, referring to himself. The phrase could just as easily have been applied to Carthage itself.

Believing correctly that Flaminius was rash and incautious, Hannibal began devastating the Eturian countryside, providing food and plunder for his men and hoping to lure Flaminius, the populist supporter of small farmers, into battle at a time and place of Hannibal’s choosing. In addition, it should be remembered that Hannibal had no base in Italy and no supply line. This gave his army considerable freedom of movement, but at the same time, since it was living off the land, it needed to keep moving.
He nonetheless at first avoided being goaded into battle and stayed in his camp as Hannibal marched around his left flank and effectively cut Flaminius off from Rome in what was probably the first recorded turning movement in military history.

Suddenly and without warning, Carthaginian trumpets blared, their blasts rippling along the hillsides, and Carthaginian cavalry swept down on the west sealing off the defile. The Carthaginian infantry, whose rigid discipline had held them quietly in place, began to pour down from the hills where they had hidden. In the fog, the Romans could see little of their attackers but could hear their war cries and the thuds of arrows and stones hurled into their midst.
Flaminius, a populist Roman politician and former governor of Sicily, had overseen the construction of the Circus Flaminius, a large arena and race track in Rome, and had also served militarily against the Gauls. Flaminius was a “new man,” being the first of his family ever to be elected a consul. He had developed a reputation for supporting small farmers and a reputation for impatience. After being named consul, he had left the city without performing the religious rituals required of a newly named consul and had in fact been recalled to Rome, a summons he had ignored.

The Romans moved east through the devastation Hannibal had wrought, Polybius wrote, swelled by enthusiastic volunteers who anticipated an easy Roman victory and carried chains with them to bind the prisoners they expected to take and to sell as slaves.
There in December 218 bc at the Trebia River, a Po tributary, the Carthaginians confronted a Roman force that may have been as many as 42,000 men, including 4,000 cavalry under Consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus. Hannibal was able to wear down the Roman force and finally destroy it with a surprise attack from the flanks. Hannibal had won a sound victory on Italian soil.

Polybius writes that Flaminius panicked, while Livy credits him with behavior more fitting a Roman consul. He rode around the Roman army, Livy wrote, trying to encourage the men and organize some kind of resistance and shifting men to wherever he saw them needed. In either case, Flaminius in his distinctive consular dress was easily recognized by the enemy.
Fabius quickly initiated a strategy of avoiding pitched battles with the Carthaginians in favor of a war of attrition aimed at wearing down the invader while Rome rebuilt its military strength. Such a strategic approach has come to be known as the “Fabian strategy.” The strategy usually relies on skirmishing and harassing the enemy, cutting its supply lines if they exist, and a general wearing away of the enemy’s morale and will to fight. It is generally employed when the belligerent adopting it believes it has time on its side.The First Punic War erupted in 264 bc, when the two powers squared off over the island of Sicily at the toe of the Italian boot. Fighting continued for two decades until the Romans won a decisive naval victory at the Battle of the Aegates Islands in 241 bc. Carthaginian naval power was largely destroyed, and Hamilcar Barca, then the Carthaginian commander in Sicily, was cut off and forced to negotiate a peace with Rome and evacuate Sicily.Only on the eastern end of the plain were the Romans able to escape the carnage. The Roman vanguard, which had been separated from the main army, had been able to fight its way into and through the narrow area between the lake and the hills on the eastern edge of the plain. There, finally able to realize the extent of the disaster behind them and unable to do anything to help, they took refuge in a nearby village. On one side was the lake and on the other the charging Carthaginians; to the Romans’ right and left, the narrow and blocked passages off the plain. The Roman forces did not have time to form up and were forced to fight were they stood and quickly split into three parts. They may have entered the plain in a three column formation; their actual marching formation is undetermined. There was panic and chaos among the troops. Centurions struggled to form what battle lines they could, not knowing in what direction to face them. To the west, where Hannibal’s cavalry had sealed off the defile, the horsemen continued to press the Roman column, forcing it back against the edge of the lake. The Roman center, including Flaminius himself, stood its ground as Hannibal’s Gallic allies hammered against it again and again. Before the First Punic War, Rome had been largely a land-based power with no navy to speak of. The war against Carthage, then a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build its own fleet and train its own naval force, a force that won the final and decisive battle of the war.

After the war, Carthage struggled to pay the indemnities Rome had leveled against it and began to recover from its losses. Cato the Elder, a Roman statesman sent on a mission to Carthage in 175 bc, was shocked at the progress the city was making in its recovery and came to believe if left unchecked it would soon be strong enough to again challenge Rome for supremacy. Thereafter, he worked to rally Senatorial opinion against Carthage and ended every speech in the Senate regardless of its topic with the line: “Besides, I think that Carthage must be destroyed.”
Hannibal was able to cross the Alps’ already snowy passes by a route that has never been clearly established and that historians have debated since the time of Livy. He arrived in Italy with perhaps 38,000 infantry and 8,000 cavalry. According to Polybius, Hannibal arrived there accompanied by as few as 20,000 foot soldiers and 4,000 horsemen. Once in northern Italy, Hannibal’s army, bolstered by Gauls and Ligurians who had joined its ranks, first met serious Roman opposition near the Po River.His reforms, however, were unpopular with the Carthaginian people and, with opposition mounting against him, he finally was forced to flee the city and go into exile. He took positions as a military adviser with various powers—usually fighting against the Romans. Finally, after being betrayed to Rome, he committed suicide by poisoning himself at Bithynia in Asia Minor rather than falling into the hands of the city he had sworn to “use fire and steel to arrest.”

What are the 2 types of ambushes?
a. There are two types of ambushes. A point ambush involves patrol elements deployed to support the attack of a single killing zone. An area ambush involves patrol elements deployed as multiple, related, point ambushes.
Polybius wrote that Hannibal originally headed north from Hispana with a force of 82,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants, but as is usually the case with ancient sources concerning the size of armies and of casualties, the numbers given are open to question. He fought his way through hostile tribes of northern Iberia and crossed the Pyrennees Mountains. Losses suffered in these struggles, which at times were heavy, along with the garrisons he had been forced to leave behind meant he may have crossed the Pyrenees with only about 50,000 infantry and 9,000 cavalry, as well as the war elephants left in his army.

“Though every other person in the council advised safe rather than showy measures, urging that he should wait for his colleague, in order that joining their armies, they might carry on the war with united courage and counsels…. Flaminius, in a fury … gave out the signal for marching for battle,” Livy wrote. He also ignored what many considered some bad omens prior to marching. At one point, Faminius had been thrown from his horse, and at another Roman standard bearers had trouble freeing their standards from the mud where they had been placed upright.

What is the theory of maneuver?
Adapted from the initial work of Lind (1985), manoeuvre theory describes a military strategic and tactical philosophy of planning and action that utilises surprise, speed, and economy of effort to achieve its goals.
Rome declared war on Carthage in 148 bc, and the Third (and final) Punic War began. The city of Carthage was attacked and put under siege. For three years Carthage withstood the Roman aggression until a force under the command of Scipio Africanus’s son, Scipio the Younger, overran the walls. After the city had fallen, Scipio sent to the Senate for final instructions and was told that the city of Carthage as well as all of those who had stood with it in opposing Rome were to be destroyed and their fields plowed and sowed with salt so nothing could grow there again. A formal curse was also laid upon anyone who would ever attempt to build upon the site where Carthage had stood.

One of the largest engagements of the Second Punic War, Hannibal’s victory at Lake Trasimene helped cement his strategic reputation and for a time panicked the Roman people and Roman Senate.
Hannibal’s judgment—his ability to correctly assess what his army was capable of and what lay beyond its reach—came into play when he purposely avoided marching on Rome. His instinctively believed an attack on Rome itself would fail.Most of the blame for the disaster has been put on Flaminius, who walked blindly into the trap, but in his defense, Tacitus, the first and second century bc Roman historian, writes that Roman armies were used to meeting their foes in open battle on open plains and not accustomed to ruse or artifice. So Flaminius was acting in accord with his time and place by not suspecting the possibility of ambush. Livy in fact considered Hannibal’s use of ambush to be deceitful. Flaminius had been proceeding in “the usual Roman way.”On the morning of June 21, Flaminius broke camp early and headed east in fog. In what has been called “the usual Roman way,” he sent no scouts ahead to try to determine the location of the enemy or the nature of the ground.Hannibal, motivated by a personal lust for glory and perhaps a need to avenge his father’s losses in the First Punic War, also remembered his boyhood oath and became determined to carry the war he had begun at Saguntum into the heart of Roman power. Hannibal was able to gain some limited support from the Carthage Senate, which at the time was controlled by a relatively pro-Roman faction that did not completely agree with his aggressive tactics on the Iberian Peninsula, and retired to New Carthage where he gathered his forces. Hannibal then took a brief religious pilgrimage, sent his Iberian bride and infant son back to Carthage, and in late spring 218 bc began his march against Rome.That morning, Hannibal sent out a small skirmishing force that engaged the Roman vanguard and succeeded in pulling it away from the main Roman force. Convinced by these Carthaginian skirmishers that they were getting close to battle, the Roman army passed through the defile and when it entered the plain spread out in a more convenient marching order. In the distance, about four miles away, the tents of the Carthaginian army could be seen, and Flaminius, who was eager for battle, must have surmised the enemy was gathered there. As the head of the Roman column approached the eastern end of the amphitheater, it halted to close ranks before advancing on the Carthaginian camp, which was a short way beyond that spot. In the spring of 217 bc, Hannibal also moved, heading south into the Italian Peninsula where he could continue to pressure the Romans and provide his troops with food from the land they crossed. Both he and the Roman Senate were aware that there were two probable routes south. The Appenine Mountains run down the Italian Peninsula like a spine. Hannibal therefore could march to the east of the mountains or to the west. The Senate positioned Servilius and Flaminius and their armies with one blocking the eastern route south and one the western route. In routing the Roman legions at Lake Trasimene, Hannibal had also won a vast store of military equipment and other booty, and after the battle many of his men were outfitted in Roman armor and helmets and were carrying Roman shields and weapons.When still a young boy, Hannibal once came upon his father, the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, who at the time was preparing to go to Iberia where Carthage was campaigning to expand its power. The boy begged to go along and join in the upcoming fighting. Hannibal’s father, the Roman historian Livy wrote, took the boy to a Carthaginian sacrificial chamber, held him up to a fire burning in the room, and made him swear that he would never be a friend of Rome.

After the battle, however, Hannibal was said to have searched for the consul’s body to give it an honorable funeral but was unable to find it. Perhaps by then looters had stripped the body of its armor and other garments and it looked like just another dead legionnaire on a field of dead legionnaires.
When Hamilcar died in 229 bc, he was succeeded in command in Iberia by Hasdrubal the Fair, who was married to one of Hannibal’s sisters. When Hasdrubal in turn was assassinated in 221 bc, Hannibal, then 21 years old, was proclaimed the Carthaginian commander of Iberia.Hannibal was left largely free to ravage the Italian Peninsula for the year of Fabius’s dictatorship, harrassed by Roman troops but escaping any major confrontations. When Fabius’s dictatorship ended, the Roman people elected Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro as consuls. They abandoned the Fabian strategy and met Hannibal at the Battle of Cannae fought August 2, 216 bc. Some 86,000 Roman troops confronted 50,000 of Hannibal’s Carthaginians. The Romans were caught in a pincer movement, or double envelopment, and all but annihilated. Eventually, as the fighting wore on a Gallic cavalryman, identified by Livy as a man named Ducarius, charged the Romans, carved his way through Flaminius’s bodyguard, and killed the consul with his spear. Livy says a group of legionnaires was able to drive the Gauls back sufficiently to rescue Flaminius’s body. “Flaminius became excited,” Polybius wrote, “and enraged at the idea that he was despised by the enemy: and as the devastation of the country went on, and he saw from the smoke that rose in every direction that the work of destruction was proceeding, he could not patiently endure the sight.”

What is the L shape maneuver?
L-shaped, when a short leg of firing units are placed to enfilade (fire the length of) the sides of the linear kill zone. V-shaped, when the firing units are distant from the kill zone at the end where the enemy enters, so the firing units lay down bands of intersecting and interlocking fire. CachedSimilar
Maharbal was sent to pursue the Roman vanguard, which had broken out of the trap. He surrounded it on a hill later that day and captured it. Both Livy and Polybius wrote that Maharbal, Hannibal’s cavalry commander, promised safe passage to these Romans if they would surrender their weapons and armor, which they did. Hannibal, however, sold them into slavery regardless of Maharbal’s promise. Another 10,000 or so of the Romans were able to escape the massacre and made their way back to Rome by various means. The captured Roman legionnaires were retained as prisoners of war while Hannibal sent those fighters who had taken part in the battle as allies of the Romans home without ransom or punishment.The Roman soldier, who was all but unbeatable in the disciplined lines of his legion, here fought alone and was destroyed. For three hours the battle raged in the morning fog, legionnaires fighting together in small bands or plunging into the lake in an attempt to escape. Others killed themselves on the field rather than face the vengance of the charging Carthaginians.

Hannibal, sometimes called Hannibal Barca, was born in 247 bc, one of at least six children of Hamilcar Barca, three daughters and three sons. He was the oldest of the sons. Historians have debated for centuries without resolving the question of whether “Barca,” which is translated as “thunderbolt,” was applied to Hamilcar alone or was a hereditary name within his family, and therefore also would be Hannibal’s.
Hannibal occupied much of Italy for the next 15 years until Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus decisively defeated the Carthaginians in Spain and landed an army in North Africa. Hannibal was recalled to defend his home city and was defeated by Scipio at the Battle of Zama in October 202 bc. The war was over. Carthage ceased to be a major power, ceded to Rome its lands in Spain and those Mediterranean islands it controlled, and agreed to pay Rome an indemnity. By the time it was over, it was said the Second Punic War had involved about three-quarters of the population of the entire Punic-Greco-Roman world and that virtually every family in Rome lost a member in the destruction brought down on Italy by Hannibal.For centuries, historians have debated the source of these elephants. Even in ancient times, Indian elephants were believed to make better war elephants than their African cousins. If Hannibal had Indian elephants with his army, how did he get them? How had they made their way from India to the north of Africa? It is known that the Eypgtian armies took some such beasts as booty during a campaign in Syria. Consequently, Hannibal may have somehow acquired the descendants of those elephants from the Eypgtians. The fact that Hannibal’s last elephant was named “The Syrian” does lend some credence to that claim. It has also been suggested, however, that Hannibal’s elephants were a now extinct species of African elephant. “The old soldiers,” Livy wrote about Hannibal’s rise to command, “fancied they saw Hamilcar in his youth given back to them; the same bright look; the same fire in his eye, the same trick of countenance and features. Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command.” The destruction of Carthage ranks among the most devastating final chapters of a conflict in history. From the ashes of Carthage, Rome laid the foundation for its commercial and naval superiority. The future of the Mediterranean in the centuries to follow would be directly tied to Rome.Goaded by the burning of the countryside and fearful of the reaction of the Senate, Flaminius reacted as Hannibal had thought he would. He marched eastward against Hannibal. Impetuous as always, he was said to have ignored the advice of his advisers who wanted to send only a cavalry detachment to harass the Carthaginians and prevent them from laying waste to any more of the country.

What is an L-shaped ambush?
L-Shaped Ambush An ambush in the L-shaped formation (see figure 6-8) is a variation of the linear formation. The long leg of the L (assault element) is parallel to the kill zone. This leg provides flanking fire. The short leg (support element) is at the end of and at a right angle to the kill zone. Cached
Hannibal had undertaken his advance, the second-century Greek historian Polybius wrote, “with consummate judgement.” Before beginning his march, for example, Hannibal had sent men ahead to reconnoiter a route and attempt to gain safe passage and allies among the native tribes of northern Hispana and Gaul over whose territory he would have to pass.

Hannibal camped at the far eastern end of the plain and during the night marched his troops around behind the hills, placing most of them parallel to the road but hidden in the hills and woods, often on the reverse slopes. He placed his cavalry at the defile, and his archers and slingers were hidden at intervals overlooking the plain.
The end of the war left Rome the dominant naval power in the Mediterranean Sea. Carthage, meanwhile, was forced to begin paying a sizable indemnity to Rome.His strategy, which had been originally developed by Hasdrubal the Fair (possibly even by Hamilcar) but never implemented, had sprung from the resounding Roman naval victories of the First Punic War. With their navy all but gone, Carthage would have to develop and rely on a land campaign to again attack Rome.

What are the different types of ambushes?
Ambushes are classified in two ways: Entrapment ambushes are premeditated. This sort of attack is what many police consider to be the “traditional” ambush, where the offender lures an unsuspecting officer into a location to execute an attack. Spontaneous ambushes are unprovoked attacks without long-term planning.
The skill of these Carthagian troops is clearly shown in their ability to move at night over such unfamiliar ground and yet arrive where they were supposed to. Hannibal also ordered his men to light campfires in the Carthaginian camp at the eastern end of the plain—at a considerable distance from his planned ambush—to help convince the Romans that his men were farther away than they actually were.Hannibal’s invasion of Italy 70 years earlier had been Carthage’s last, best chance, and it had failed. With it, the fate of the Mediterranean—and of the ancient world—was determined. Mercifully, Hannibal had not lived to see his city’s final destruction. After his defeat at Zama, Hannibal had remained in Carthage and been elected to political office. There he was able to enact some political and financial reforms intended to pay the war indemnity imposed by Rome.

In either case, the elephants had been intended to frighten enemy troops with their imposing bulk and terrible bellows—an ancient form of psychological warfare.Perhaps lulled into a state of complacency by their earlier successes, the Roman people and the Roman Senate had allowed Carthage 20 years to regain its strength following the First Punic War and had all but ignored the Carthaginian buildup on the Iberian Peninsula. The Roman Senate appears to have believed it could put down any Carthaginian uprising at will, and while it pursued other matters it had allowed Hannibal to choose when and where a war would take place.

After the battle, Hannibal camped to allow his men to rest and to bury his dead. But when he was informed that a force of 4,000 horsemen under Propraetor Cnaeus Centenius had been sent out from Servilius’s army to reinforce Flaminius and was unaware of what had happened, he dispatched Maharbal with cavalry to meet it. Centenius was quickly routed with half his men killed or wounded and the other half captured.

Interestingly enough, Hannibal was able to keep his plans secret despite the presence of the inhabitants in the region who might have been suspected to have reported Hannibal’s presence in the area to the Roman general.

What was the most successful ambush in history?
At Lake Trasimene in June 217 bc, Hannibal sprung what has been called “one of the largest and most successful ambushes in military history” after goading the impetuous Roman Consul Gaius Flaminius Nepos into battle. In less than four hours, the Carthaginian general annihilated Flaminius’s Roman army.
Young Hannibal was to grow into perhaps the greatest of Rome’s enemies. At Lake Trasimene in June 217 bc, Hannibal sprung what has been called “one of the largest and most successful ambushes in military history” after goading the impetuous Roman Consul Gaius Flaminius Nepos into battle.

When news of the defeat at Lake Trasimene reached Rome it caused panic among the citizentry and the Senate, which decided a military dictator was needed. It was the first time since 249 bc that such a step had been taken. Normally, such a dictator would be appointed by one of the serving consuls, but with Flaminius dead and Servilius still tied up in the field an election was held and Quintus Fabius Maximus was named dictator. Fabius, who was then 58 years of age, old for a Roman general of the time, had already served twice as consul and was to emerge as one of the greatest generals of the war and to hold the consulship three more times in the next decade.
Hannibal had now disposed of the only force that could check his advance upon Rome, but he realized he was without siege engines and could not hope to take the capital without them. In addition, he knew the Romans kept the city well garrisoned and could call up numerous other troops in a short time. He was also realist enough to know much of his Italian success so far had been due to his cavalry. What use was cavalry when attacking a walled city?Men fled into the lake and drowned or were hacked to death by Carthaginian cavalry that pursued them. Others died trying to swim across the lake, their armor pulling them down.

What are the 4 types of ambush?
Types of Ambush MarketingDirect Ambush Marketing. This involves intentional efforts by an individual brand or company to make itself seem associated with an event for which it has no rights.Predatory Ambushing. … Coattail Ambushing. … Self-Ambushing. … Indirect Ambush Marketing.
Seeking to make up territorial losses from the war and with an eye on the plentiful silver of the Iberian Peninsula, which would aid in paying its indemnity, in 237 bc Carthaginian forces under the command of Hamilcar began expanding Carthage’s power there. Hamilcar himself drowned in battle against native Iberian tribes in 229 bc, but Carthaginian efforts to subdue the peninsula continued, the offensive culminating in the founding of New Carthage (the current Cartagena, Spain) on the peninsula’s Mediterranean coast in 228 bc.

In less than four hours, the Carthaginian general annihilated Flaminius’s Roman army. Livy wrote—with some embellishment—that the fighting was so severe that neither army was aware of an earthquake that at the very moment of the battle “overthrew large portions of many of the cities of Italy, turned rivers, and leveled mountains with an awful crash.”
Historians have also remarked that the Roman soldier of the time should not be underrated regardless of the losses at Lake Trasimene. The Carthaginians had the great advantages of surprise and position, and they were more experienced soldiers having fought their way through Hispana and Gaul before entering Italy. Regardless of these advantages, 6,000 Romans were still able to fight their way free of the trap. In material and organization, the Romans had a clear edge. However, the advantage that the Carthaginian army had was that of a veteran army under a commander whose genius was unrivalled at the time.